Black holes – everyone knows that they exist, but nobody really knows what they are exactly.
A lot of laws of physics seem to be ignored or omitted when it comes to black holes, so there always seems to be a missing link when it comes to understanding how they work.
BLACK HOLE Vs WHITE HOLE
One theory to mitigate these unknowns is the presence of white holes – a hypothetical equal and opposite version of a black hole that was first discussed in the early 1960s by the Russian cosmologist Igor Novikov.
Black holes have gravity so strong that everything around them – including light – gets drawn in and, once matter passes through the event horizon, it can never escape. This “point of no return” draws matter closer to the black hole’s singularity and is where a lot of the uncertainties start to occur.
A white hole, if proven to be real, would work the complete opposite of how a black hole does – it wouldn’t be able to let anything enter it from the outside, however matter and light would be able to escape it.
Of course, this would mean that the matter would have had to get into the white hole at some point for this to be true.
A big unknown with black holes is that no one knows what happens to matter once it’s passed the event horizon and becomes engulfed in the black hole. What actually happens to all the information is still something scientists are trying to work out.
ORIGIN OF THE CONCEPT OF WHITE HOLE
The origin of where a white hole would come from is currently unknown. One theory is that a white hole is created from extremely old black holes that have started to expel all of the information they have attained, thus meaning that the matter was never entirely eradicated.
Another more thought provoking hypothesis is that they are portals of black holes from entirely different dimensions. If a supernova occurred in a different dimension, the resulting black hole could have created a white hole in a different dimension.
This could hypothetically mean that our big bang could have been a white hole resulting from a different dimension’s supernova.
FECUND UNIVERSES THEORY AND ITS DOUBTS
Lee Smolin developed a theorem based on this topic known as the “Fecund Universes Theory”. This theory states that a collapsing black hole causes a new universe to be born on the “other side”. Smolin claims that the fundamental constant parameters in these new universes could be different, thus likening it to a “cosmological natural selection”.
Leonard Susskind, an American physicist who is also a professor at Stanford University, has doubts about this theory. In his paper “Cosmic Natural Selection”, he claims that there is proof that black holes do not lose information.
“Black holes do not lose information. The implication is that if there is any kind of universe creation in the interior of the black hole, the quantum state of the offspring is completely unique and can have no memory of the initial state,” he explains.
This even managed to convince Stephen Hawking, who once claimed that information is lost in a black hole, to be swayed into Susskind’s way of thinking.
This would mean that any black hole transferring information into a reborn universe is not possible, as the black hole would be retaining all of the information and therefore the hypothetical white hole would not have any source for its own information.
Of course, the whole idea of white holes existing is entirely hypothetical so far as there has been no evidence of any existing apart from one gamma ray burst (GRB) in 2006 that exhibited strange properties that were not expected. By 2011, it was hypothesized that the gamma ray burst was a white hole appearing for a total of 102 seconds.